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The application and development of membrane separation techn Time:2018.01.29
    The treatment and discharge of industrial waste water has been monitored by the state. In the process of industrial production, a large amount of fresh water is required, and a large amount of waste water containing heavy metals, toxic chemicals, acid and alkali, organic matter, oil, suspended matter and other toxic and harmful substances is discharged. Compared with municipal sewage, industrial waste water has many characteristics such as complex composition, high concentration, environmental toxicity and many related industries. According to statistics, in 2015, China's industrial wastewater discharge was 199.500 million tons, accounting for 27.1% of the total waste water. Industrial wastewater treatment capacity reached 444.6 billion tons, and the processing capacity of treatment facilities reached 250 million tons per day, and the annual operating cost was 68.5 billion yuan.
    In recent years, especially after 2010, as a new kind of separation technology, membrane separation technology can not only effectively removal of wastewater chroma, odor, remove a variety of ions, organic matter and microbe, etc, and can recycle some material, in the depth of the industrial wastewater treatment and water reuse has been comprehensive, rapid application and development.
    According to investigation, membrane technology in electroplating, printing and dyeing, papermaking, landfill leachate, electric power industry has been rapid development. In this paper, we will discuss the development and application of membrane in the five subdivisions of industrial wastewater.
    Electroplating and PCB heavy metal wastewater treatment membrane application rate is about 70%.
    Electroplating is a key industry of heavy metal wastewater discharge. China has a wide range of electroplating enterprises. According to incomplete statistics, there are about 15,000 enterprises in scale. In recent years, the number of electroplating enterprises has been decreasing, and mainly concentrated in the electroplating park. As a state control enterprise, the wastewater treatment of electroplating enterprises has been focused on. The investigation found that between 2000 and 2010, the electroplating wastewater treatment technology that had been shipped was mostly chemical precipitation method, and the market application rate of the membrane was about 20% to 30%. In 2008, the ministry of environmental protection issued the standards for the discharge of pollutants (GB21900-2008)(hereinafter referred to as the "standard"), and put forward more stringent table 3 standards in sensitive areas. Parts surface treatment wastewater concentration limit and the European Union, "the standard" level of metal pollutants emission standards strictly in a hierarchical levels, and chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus and other nonmetal pollutants several indicators as listed in the surface water pollutant total amount control is strict. After implementing the new "standard", COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biochemical indexes such as due to the wastewater biological sex is poorer, conventional chemical precipitation of AO or A2O process cannot process, is the main factor of overweight, while copper, nickel and excessive amounts of the main factors of heavy metals.
    At the same time, under the background of state key monitoring of heavy metal wastewater treatment, the electroplating enterprises must adopt cleaner production measures to increase the reuse of medium water. In this case, most enterprises increase the depth treatment process of membrane method to achieve the target of discharge and reuse of water. By 2013, the ministry of environmental protection issued the "best feasible technical guide for the prevention and control of electroplating pollution (trial)" (HJ-BAT-11), and vigorously promoted the process of membrane processing. Since then, the application of membrane in the field of electroplating wastewater treatment has been rapidly promoted.
    In 2015, there were nearly 1,900 printing and dyeing enterprises in China, and more than 95 percent of the production capacity was concentrated in five provinces in the southeast coast. In China's industrial sector, the textile industry ranks fourth in the discharge of sewage. Among them, printing and dyeing is the main body of the textile industry. Its waste water accounts for 80% of the textile industry, and it accounts for 14% of the total emissions of industrial wastewater, but the recovery rate of wastewater is only 7%.
    Printing and dyeing industry is one of the ten major pollution industries in China. In 2008, the national development and reform commission issued the "conditions of entry for printing and dyeing industry"; In 2012, the ministry of environmental protection and the general administration of quality supervision, inspection and quarantine issued the "standards for the discharge of water pollutants in textile dyeing and finishing industries" (GB 4287-2012). In 2015, according to the actual situation of the textile park and the adjustment demand of the indirect discharge control of water pollutants, the paper also issued the amendment of the standard for the discharge of water pollutants in textile dyeing and finishing industries (GB 4287-2012). In 2015, the "water 10" was released, and the printing and dyeing industry faced a great pressure of energy conservation and emission reduction. At the same time, the state keeps increasing the water limit for enterprises and the high cost of water consumption, which has given rise to the internal impetus for the upgrading and transformation of printing and dyeing enterprises.At the same time, printing and dyeing wastewater as one of the difficult processing of industrial wastewater at home and abroad, the traditional "physicochemical + biochemical + physicochemical process, secondary treatment effluent discharge and reuse standards to meet the requirements. Because of the obvious advantages such as simple process, no secondary pollution and excellent water quality, the membrane treatment technology has gradually become the standard technology that has to be considered in the wastewater treatment and renovation project of printing and dyeing enterprises, which greatly promotes the development and development of membrane technology in this field. It is learned that the application of membrane technology in textile printing and dyeing industry is mainly reflected in the treatment and reuse of printing and dyeing wastewater, the recovery of PVA(polyvinyl alcohol) slurry recovery, the recycling of alkaline waste water, the recovery of oil and grease in the waste water, and the recovery and desalination of dyes in the production of dyes. The application of wastewater depth treatment and recycling is the most widely used.
    Since 2007 and 2008, membrane technology has been applied in the textile printing and dyeing industry. Currently, the market application rate in the industry has reached about 50%. In the future, as the environmental protection situation becomes more and more serious, the proportion is expected to increase further during the 13th five-year plan period.
    The paper industry is a high water consumption, high pollution industry, its water consumption in China's top five high water consumption industry. The total displacement is second only to the chemical and steel industry, ranking third in the industrial waste water discharge, and COD emissions are one third of the total industrial COD emissions in China. The pollution control of papermaking wastewater is not only a hot issue in the industry and the whole society, but also the key to the survival and development of papermaking enterprises.
    In June 2008, the national environmental protection promulgated the pulp and paper industry waste water pollutant discharge standard "(GB3544-2008), including COD, BOD and SS emissions targets on a version of the standard discharge limit by 76%, 90%, 88%, and increase the chroma, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and AOX emissions targets. In 2015, "water 10" was released, and the paper industry was the first in the ten key industries. In December 2016, the notice on the management of the emission permits for the pilot cities of the pilot cities of thermal power, paper industry and beijing-tianjin-hebei province was issued, and the application and verification of the enterprise's emission permits should be completed before June 30, 2017. It is that necessity of standard and strict policy, the backward application of the waste wat depth treatment and the closed circulation and zero emission, which is the inevitable choice for the survival development of the papermaking industry.
    In this background, the biochemical treatment as the main body of the tertiary treatment technology gradually become the mainstream technology, including membrane process with its, in most cases, the chroma, SS and the marked effects of the removal rate of AOX is 90%, also gradually applied to the new treatment engineering construction and the technological upgrading of tertiary deep processing.
The application rate of landfill leachate was over 90%.
    As of 2015, the capacity of domestic garbage disposal in cities and counties in China has reached 758 thousand tons/day, and its treatment methods include sanitary landfill, incineration and composting. At present, the treatment demand of landfill leachate mainly comes from landfills and waste incineration plants. Garbage leachate is a kind of black smelly, complicated composition of high concentration organic wastewater, COD, high concentration of ammonia nitrogen, biochemical substance content more, toxic, the change of water quality of water, and is currently recognized difficult to deal with wastewater.
Since the 1980 s, the garbage leachate treatment are mainly composed of A/O biological method, to the late 90 s, as the garbage leachate national emission standards (GB16889-1997), began to appear is given priority to with biochemical method, physico-chemical and advanced oxidation process occurring together. And in July 2008, the ministry of environmental protection and so on release of the living standards of the landfill pollution control (GB16889-2008) opened, the traditional physicochemical + biochemical treatment process has not fully meet the standard requirements, in-depth processing must be in the biochemical process. The depth treatment process mainly includes membrane separation process and advanced oxidation technology, as well as some unconventional processing techniques such as activated carbon adsorption and ion exchange. In the leachate of incinerators, according to "waste incineration pollution control standard (GB18485-2014)" requirements after the wastewater treatment system of priority to recycle, when he has to discharge pollutants discharge limits according to the requirements of integrated wastewater discharge standard (GB8978) is carried out.
    In addition, more stringent requirements for environmental impact assessment have been put forward. When the landfill leachate near landfill site is combined with landfill leachate, it should be according to the requirement of landfill leachate discharge limit. More stringent landfill leachate discharge standards effectively promote the upgrading of existing technologies, existing enterprises, and the industrialization of new technologies. The application of membrane in the field of leachate treatment is rapidly promoted.
    From the present status of leachate treatment, combined with the technology route, the mainstream technology of waste leachate treatment using method of MBR + NF/RO process, this process has strong adaptability and flexibility on the operation, the water completely meet the design discharge standards. According to the investigation of the mainstream enterprises in the landfill leachate treatment, the application rate of the membrane in the landfill leachate treatment project is more than 90%
    Membrane method is a necessary technology for water treatment in power industry.
    The water treatment system in the power industry mainly includes the pretreatment of various water sources used in thermal power plants and nuclear power plants, desalination treatment, boiler resupply water treatment, condensate treatment, circulating cooling water treatment and all kinds of sewage effluents (including industrial wastewater, desulfurization wastewater, containing coal wastewater, oily wastewater and domestic sewage).
    With the increasing emphasis on environmental protection and the implementation of energy conservation and emission reduction policies, the newly-built large coal-fired power generation boiler has put forward higher requirements on the quality of water. As a result, the effluent is stable and reliable, simple operation and fast membrane technology is in the process of power plant chemical water treatment is widely used, and become one of the essential link of boiler water treatment desalination beforehand. At the same time, due to the shortage of water resources in our country, the raw water used in power plant is often used in seawater and reclaimed water, so as to achieve high water quality, membrane water treatment technology is often adopted. Meanwhile, membrane water treatment also has application in circulating cooling water in the power plant.
    With the implementation of zero discharge of industrial waste water, the power plant usually adopts membrane concentration + evaporation crystallization method to achieve zero discharge of desulphurization wastewater. In addition, the membrane water treatment technology has become the power plant water island (coal-fired power plants from water purification, water treatment process to wastewater treatment and reuse throughout the whole process as a whole to carry on the overall planning, independent into a "island".) One of the indispensable technologies.
    It is found that membrane water treatment has been used widely in power industry.
    With advanced technology, Holves provides high-quality membrane separation products for various industries.

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